HSC Chemistry 1st Paper Note 4th Chapter Chemical Changes. Chemical changes occur when a substance combines with another to form a new substance, called chemical synthesis or, alternatively, chemical decomposition into two or more different substances. These processes are called chemical reactions and, in general, are not reversible except by further chemical reactions. Some reactions produce heat and are called exothermic reactions and others may require heat to enable the reaction to occur, which are called endothermic reactions. Understanding chemical changes is a major part of the science of chemistry.
When chemical reactions occur, the atoms are rearranged and the reaction is accompanied by an energy change as new products are generated. An example of a chemical change is the reaction between sodium and water to produce sodium hydroxide and hydrogen. So much energy is released that the hydrogen gas released spontaneously burns in the air. This is an example of a chemical change because the end products are chemically different from the substances before the chemical reaction.
HSC Chemistry 1st Paper Note 4th Chapter Chemical Changes
Chemists categorize chemical changes into three main classes: inorganic chemical changes, organic chemical changes, and biochemical changes. Inorganic chemistry describes the reactions of elements and compounds that, in general, do not involve carbon. The changes typically take place in laboratories, or on a larger scale in heavy industries. Typical types of change include neutralization (mixing an acid with a base, resulting in water and salt), oxidization including combustion, redox reactions, etc.
Organic chemistry is concerned with the chemistry of carbon and the elements and compound with which it reacts. These compounds include mineral oil and all of its products and much of the output of industries manufacturing pharmaceuticals, paints, detergents, cosmetics, fuels, etc. Typical examples of organic chemical changes include cracking heavy hydrocarbons at an oil refinery to create more gasoline from crude oil, as gasoline is in higher demand than the heavier hydrocarbons, such as residual fuel oils. Other reactions include methylation, condensation reactions, polymerization, halogenation, etc.
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