Chapter 5. Afforestation
Chapter 5. Afforestation. Plantation in the forest land, taking care and maintenance of them according to the scientific method is called afforestation. Through afforestation, maximum forest materials are produced. The afforestation created through the scientific and planned way in the households, different organizations, roads, and bound sides, hilly areas and coastal areas are called social afforestation.
Chapter 5. Afforestation
The role of forest in creating an environment suitable for living and its conservation is boundless. The forest created by the combination of large trees and, vines and shrubs in large areas of a country or region is called forest land. These forest lands are sometimes created naturally. But sometimes people create this by planting plants and taking care of their own needs. It is essential to have 25 percent of forest lands regarding the total land of a country to maintain the natural balance.
Afforestation is the process of planting trees, or sowing seeds, in a barren land devoid of any trees to create a forest. The term should not be confused with reforestation, which is the process of specifically planting native trees into a forest that has decreasing numbers of trees.
China has deforested most of its historically wooded areas. China reached the point where timber yields declined far below historic levels, due to over-harvesting of trees beyond sustainable yield. Although it has set official goals for reforestation, these goals are set over an 80-year time horizon and have not been significantly met by 2008. China is trying to correct these problems by projects like the Green Wall of China, which aims to replant a lot of forests and halt the expansion of the Gobi desert. The Green Wall of China Project has historical precedences dating back to before the Common Era. However, in pre-modern periods, government-sponsored afforestation projects along the historical frontier regions were mostly for military fortification.
A law promulgated in 1981 requires that every school student over the age of 11 plants at least one tree per year. As a result, China has the highest afforestation rate of any country or region in the world, with 47,000 square kilometers of afforestation in 2008. However, the forest area per capita is still far lower than the international average
According to Carbon Brief, China planted the largest amount of new forest out of any country between 1990 and 2015, facilitated by the country’s Grain for Green programme started in 1999, by investing more than $100bn in afforestation programmes and planting more than 35bn trees across 12 provinces. By 2015, the amount of planted forest in China covered 79m hectares.
From 2011-2016, the city Dongying in Shandong province forested over 13,800 hectares of saline soil through the Shandong Ecological Afforestation Project, which was launched with support from the World Bank. In 2017, the Saihanba Afforestation Community won the UN Champions of the Earth Award in the Inspiration and Action category for “transforming degraded land into a lush paradise”.
Europe has deforested the majority of its historical forests. The European Union (EU) has paid farmers for afforestation since 1990, offering grants to turn farmland back into forest and payments for the management of the forest. Between 1993 and 1997, EU afforestation policies made possible the re-forestation of over 5,000 square kilometers of land. A second program, running between 2000 and 2006, afforested more than 1000 square kilometers of land (precise statistics not yet available). A third such program began in 2007. Europe’s forests are growing by 0.8 million a year thanks to these programs.
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