HSC Logic 1 Suggestion Question 2020-7. Logic has two meanings: first, it describes the use of valid reasoning in some activity; second, it names the normative study of reasoning or a branch thereof. In the latter sense, it features most prominently in the subjects of philosophy, mathematics, and computer science.

## HSC Logic 1 Suggestion Question 2020-7

Model Question No. 7

The logic was studied in several ancient civilizations, including India, China, Persia, and Greece. In the West, logic was established as a formal discipline by Aristotle, who gave it a fundamental place in philosophy. The study of logic was part of the classical trivium, which also included grammar and rhetoric. The logic was further extended by Al-Farabi who categorized it into two separates groups (idea and proof). Later, Avicenna revived the study of logic and developed a relationship between temporalis and the implication. In the East, logic was developed by Buddhists and Jains.

The history of logic deals with the study of the development of the science of valid inference (logic). Formal logic developed in ancient times in India, China, and Greece. Greek methods, particularly Aristotelian logic (or term logic) as found in the Organon, found wide application and acceptance in Western science and mathematics for millennia. The Stoics, especially Chrysippus, began the development of predicate logic.

Christian and Islamic philosophers such as Boethius (died 524), Ibn Sina (Avicenna, died 1037) and William of Ockham (died 1347) further developed Aristotle’s logic in the Middle Ages, reaching a high point in the mid-fourteenth century, with Jean Buridan. The period between the fourteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century saw largely decline and neglect, and at least one historian of logic regards this time as barren. Empirical methods ruled the day, as evidenced by Sir Francis Bacon’s Novum Organon of 1620.

Logic revived in the mid-nineteenth century, at the beginning of a revolutionary period when the subject developed into a rigorous and formal discipline which took as its exemplar the exact method of proof used in mathematics, a hearkening back to the Greek tradition.[3] The development of the modern “symbolic” or “mathematical” logic during this period by the likes of Boole, Frege, Russell, and Peano is the most significant in the two-thousand-year history of logic and is arguably one of the most important and remarkable events in human intellectual history.

Progress in mathematical logic in the first few decades of the twentieth century, particularly arising from the work of Gödel and Tarski, had a significant impact on analytic philosophy and philosophical logic, particularly from the 1950s onwards, in subjects such as modal logic, temporal logic, deontic logic, and relevance logic.

In China, a contemporary of Confucius, Mozi, “Master Mo”, is credited with founding the Mohist school, whose canons dealt with issues relating to valid inference and the conditions of correct conclusions. In particular, one of the schools that grew out of Mohism, the Logicians, is credited by some scholars for their early investigation of formal logic. Due to the harsh rule of Legalism in the subsequent Qin Dynasty, this line of investigation disappeared in China until the introduction of Indian philosophy by Buddhists.

Valid reasoning has been employed in all periods of human history. However, logic studies the principles of valid reasoning, inference, and demonstration. It is probable that the idea of demonstrating a conclusion first arose in connection with geometry, which originally meant the same as “land measurement”. The ancient Egyptians discovered geometry, including the formula for the volume of a truncated pyramid.

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