HSC Islam Education 2nd Paper 3rd Chapter Note
HSC Islam Education 2nd Paper 3rd Chapter Note. Al-Ijmā. Ijmāʿ (Arabic: إجماع) is an Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues.: 472 Various schools of thought within Islamic jurisprudence may define this consensus to be that of the first generation of Muslims only; or the consensus of the first three generations of Muslims; or the consensus of the jurists and scholars of the Muslim world, or scholarly consensus; or the consensus of all the Muslim world, both scholars and laymen.
The hadith of Muhammad which states that “My ummah will never agree upon an error” is often cited as a proof of the validity of ijmā’. Sunni Muslims regard ijmā’ as the third fundamental source of Sharia law, just after the divine revelation of the Qur’an, and the prophetic practice known as Sunnah.
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HSC Islam Education 2nd Paper 3rd Chapter Note. Al-Ijmā
Logic was studied in several ancient civilizations, including India, China, Persia, and Greece. This issue goes back to the basic difference between the Islamic and Christian view of knowledge. In Christianity, the Bible relates the fall of man to the sin of stealing the fruit from the tree of knowledge; whereas, in Islam, the Quran describes knowledge as the basis on which the man was given preference over the angels. Even historically, the Christian church is full of stories about its Inquisitors who censored the works of science and also tortured the scientists if the views were contrary to what the Bible said.
In Muslim history, no such institutionalized censorship or suppression of scientists can be found. In the Muslim world, you find the harmonious combination of the two types of knowledge. For example, in the person of Ibn Sina, you had someone who had written al-Isharat on philosophy and metaphysics, and also al-Qanun fit-Tibb on medicine, a book whose Latin translation was used as a text in western universities till two centuries ago! This dissection between the religious and secular sciences is the root of all the problems in the area of education for Muslims worldwide.
The greatest challenge for the Muslims of the twenty-first century is the issue of the bringing together of the two sciences, religious and secular, in such a way that knowledge brings people closer to God and gives meaning to the life on this earth. This is not impossible because historically the Muslims have done that in the past. Right from the days of Imam Muhammad al- Baqir (a.s.) till the downfall of the Muslim empire. We had Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a.s) who taught theology to Hisham bin Hakam, Ahadith to Zurarah bin A’yan, and science to Jabir bin Hayyan. In our Imams, we see the example of a single source for religious as well as secular sciences.
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