HSC Civics 2nd Paper 9th Chapter Note
HSC Civics 2nd Paper 9th Chapter Note. Civics is the study of the theoretical and practical aspects of citizenship, its rights and duties; the duties of citizens to each other as members of a political body and to the government. It includes the study of civil law and civil code, and the study of government with attention to the role of citizens ― as opposed to external factors ― in the operation and oversight of government.
HSC Civics 2nd Paper 9th Chapter Note
Good Governance is an approach to government that is committed to creating a system founded in justice and peace that protects an individual’s human rights and civil liberties. According to the United Nations, Good Governance is measured by the eight factors of Participation, Rule of Law, Transparency, Responsiveness, Consensus-Oriented, Equity and Inclusiveness, Effectiveness and Efficiency, and Accountability.
Participation requires that all groups, particularly those most vulnerable, have direct or representative access to the systems of government. This manifests as a strong civil society and citizens with the freedom of association and expression.
Rule of Law is exemplified by impartial legal systems that protect the human rights and civil liberties of all citizens, particularly minorities. This is indicated by an independent judicial branch and a police force free from corruption.
Transparency means that citizens understand and have access to the means and manner in which decisions are made, especially if they are directly affected by such decisions. This information must be provided in an understandable and accessible format, typically translated through the media. Responsiveness simply involves that institutions respond to their stakeholders within a reasonable time frame.
Consensus-Oriented is demonstrated by an agenda that seeks to mediate between the many different needs, perspectives, and expectations of a diverse citizenry. Decisions need to be made in a manner that reflects a deep understanding of the historical, cultural, and social context of the community.
Equity and Inclusiveness depend on ensuring that all the members of a community feel included and empowered to improve or maintain they are well being, especially those individuals and groups that are the most vulnerable.
Effectiveness and Efficiency are developed through the sustainable use of resources to meet the needs of society. Sustainability refers to both ensuring social investments carry through and natural resources are maintained for future generations.
Accountability refers to institutions being ultimately accountable to the people and one another. This includes government agencies, civil society, and the private sector all being accountable to one another as well.
There is no single and exhaustive definition of “good governance,” nor is there a delimitation of its scope, that commands universal acceptance. The term is used with great flexibility; this is an advantage, but also a source of some difficulty at the operational level.
Depending on the context and the overriding objective sought, good governance has been said at various times to encompass: full respect of human rights, the rule of law, effective participation, multi-actor partnerships, political pluralism, transparent and accountable processes and institutions, an efficient and effective public sector, legitimacy, access to knowledge, information and education, political empowerment of people, equity, sustainability, and attitudes and values that foster responsibility, solidarity and tolerance.
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