HSC Civics 2 Suggestion Question 2020. Civics is the study of the theoretical and practical aspects Paper of citizenship, its rights, and duties; the duties of citizens to each other as members of a political body and to the government. It includes the study of civil law and civil code, and the study of government with attention to the role of citizens ― as opposed to external factors ― in the operation and oversight of government.
HSC Civics 2 Suggestion Question 2020
All Board HSC Civics and Good Governance 2nd Paper Model Question
It is important to distinguish good governance from other concepts that look similar, such as development and economic growth. Instead of considering them as equal, many scholars refer to them as features that are likely to be related in different ways. In fact, the importance that authors give to good governance is due to the impact it may have on development and economic growth.
According to Grindle (2004), the relevance of getting good governance comes precisely from its relationship with the development of a country and the reduction of poverty. Setting an agenda for reaching good governance is of the huge interest but also a complex task, which makes this author propose rather a “good enough governance” agenda as a starting point. In the construction of this “simpler” agenda, the idea is to revisit policies that have worked in the past, set priorities in a strategically way, consider policies with greater impact in alleviating poverty and reaching development, and look for innovative ways of implementing such policies.
In terms of economic growth, there are several authors relating that variable with good governance, but in the sense of “being related to” instead of “being part of”. In other words, scholars have been intrigued by the relationship between good governance and economic or political development. Grindle (2007) mentions there are many relations to be found between indicators of good governance and economic growth, however, those associations are difficult to measure and even harder to be attributed as causal.
Nevertheless, she mentions the work of Kauffman (2002), who found a causal and positive relationship between different dimensions of good governance and the GDP per capita, in the long run, i.e. good governance makes development possible.
These dimensions are how the government is elected and oversight, the accountability power of citizens, the credibility in the government, the respect for institutions, both from government and citizens, and the effective delivery of public goods. He found that the relation between these two variables does not hold in the reverse direction, meaning that higher levels of economic growth do not lead to better governance.
For example, Quain (2003) points out that China and Vietnam are frequent examples of countries that have made remarkable leaps in economic development and poverty reduction but nevertheless retain many characteristics of poor governance.
Good governance at all levels is fundamental to economic growth, political stability, and security. The OSCE works to tackle many aspects of weak governance, including corruption and money-laundering, and to promote full respect of the rule of law, increase transparency, and develop effective legislation as the foundation of a functioning State.
Promoting good governance and combating corruption, money laundering, and the financing of terrorism are among the key activities of the Office of the Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities (OCEEA). These activities are based on a number of OSCE Ministerial and Permanent Council Decisions, including the 2014 Basel Ministerial Council Decision on the Prevention of Corruption and the 2012 Dublin Ministerial Council Declaration on Strengthening Good Governance and Combating Corruption, Money-Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism.
The OCEEA actively supports national reforms and transparency initiatives, as well the development and implementation of more effective anti-corruption policies and mechanisms to help to participate States in achieving good economic governance, creating robust anti-money laundering regimes, a solid ethics infrastructure, and sound financial and resource management.
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