HSC Biology 2nd Paper Note 10th Chapter Defence System of Human Body

HSC Biology 2nd Paper Note 10th Chapter Defence System of Human Body. The first parts of the general defense system are real barriers that stop the pathogens from entering the body. These barriers try to stop all pathogens, therefore, they are considered non-specific defenses. The physical barriers of our general defense system consisting of:

  • The Skin- This was discussed in the excretion web page. It is a physical barrier that stops pathogens.
  • Clotting- If the skin is broken the blood clot stops entry of pathogens.
  • Sebaceous and sweat glands- These produce chemicals that kill bacteria.
  • Lysozyme- This is in the saliva and the tear glands. It kills bacteria.
  • Mucous membranes- These secrete mucus which lines many body parts. The mucous traps pathogens and prevents them from entering the body.
  • Nasal hairs- These remove suspended micro-organisms from the air.
  • Cilia- These small hairs beat to force mucus to the pharynx for swallowing to the stomach. Coughing helps in this process.

HSC Biology 2nd Paper Note 10th Chapter Defence System of Human Body

HSC Biology 2nd Paper Note 9th Chapter Continuation of Human Life

HSC Biology 2nd Paper Note 10th Chapter Defence System of Human Body

HSC Biology 2nd Paper Note 10th Chapter Defence System of Human Body

HSC Biology 2nd Paper Note 10th Chapter Defence System of Human Body

The immune system protects the body against disease or other potentially damaging foreign bodies. When functioning properly, the immune system identifies and attacks a variety of threats, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites, while distinguishing them from the body’s own healthy tissue. The Lymphatic system consists of bone marrow, spleen, thymus and lymph nodes. Bone marrow produces white blood cells or leukocytes. The spleen is the largest lymphatic organ in the body contains white blood cells that fight infection or disease. The thymus is where T-cells mature. T-cells help destroy infected or cancerous cells.

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HSC Biology 2nd Paper Note 10th Chapter Defence System of Human Body

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