# Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current

## Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current

Electromagnetic induction is the production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field.

Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831 though it may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi in 1829. Around 1830 to 1832, Joseph Henry made a similar discovery, but did not publish his findings until later.

Electromagnetic induction occurs when a circuit with an alternating current flowing through it generates current in another circuit simply by being placed nearby. An alternating current is the kind of electricity flowing through power lines and home wiring, as opposed to a direct current, which we get from batteries.

### Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current

Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current

Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current

Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current

Electromagnetic induction is the production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field.

Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831 though it may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi in 1829. Around 1830 to 1832, Joseph Henry made a similar discovery but did not publish his findings until later.

Faraday’s law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF). It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators, and solenoids.

The Maxwell-Faraday equation is a generalization of Faraday’s law and forms one of Maxwell’s equations.

Electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831; however, Faraday was the first to publish the results of his experiments. In Faraday’s first experimental demonstration of electromagnetic induction (August 29, 1831[9]), he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or “torus” (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer). Based on his assessment of recently discovered properties of electromagnets, he expected that when current started to flow in one wire, a sort of wave would travel through the ring and cause some electrical effect on the opposite side. He plugged one wire into a galvanometer and watched it as he connected the other wire to a battery.

Indeed, he saw a transient current (which he called a “wave of electricity”) when he connected the wire to the battery, and another when he disconnected it. This induction was due to the change in magnetic flux that occurred when the battery was connected and disconnected.[6] Within two months, Faraday had found several other manifestations of electromagnetic induction. For example, he saw transient currents when he quickly slid a bar magnet in and out of a coil of wires, and he generated a steady (DC) current by rotating a copper disk near the bar magnet with a sliding electrical lead (“Faraday’s disk”).

Faraday explained electromagnetic induction using a concept he called lines of force. However, scientists at the time widely rejected his theoretical ideas, mainly because they were not formulated mathematically.  An exception was Maxwell, who used Faraday’s ideas as the basis of his quantitative electromagnetic theory.  In Maxwell’s papers, the time varying aspect of electromagnetic induction is expressed as a differential equation which Oliver Heaviside referred to as Faraday’s law even though it is slightly different in form from the original version of Faraday’s law, and does not describe motional EMF. Heaviside’s version (see Maxwell-Faraday equation below) is the form recognized today in the group of equations known as Maxwell’s equations.

Lenz’s law, formulated by Heinrich Lenz in 1834, describes “flux through the circuit”, and gives the direction of the induced EMF and current resulting from electromagnetic induction.