Chapter 11. Biotechnology
Chapter 11. Biotechnology. The base of modern genetics was founded near about 150 years ago by the research of an Austrian Priest called Johan Gregor Mendel. The main topic of his invention was every character of a living being is controlled by a pair of factors. In 1908, Batson termed Mendel’s factors as genes. At the beginning of the 20th century, genetics began to develop in many ways. It began to get enriched with lots of information. Biologists have explained the different processes of the cell; knew about cell division, the chemical structure of chromosome and gene, etc. Along with the nature of gene elements its chemical structure, control of the biological process the biologists began to think another thing.
They saw that all the genes of a living being are not good for that living being. The scientists began to investigate, how the gene can be transferred from one cell to another cell without fertilization, how the harmful gene can be deleted and the good or suitable gene can be inserted in that place. Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen, the researchers of California University, in 1973, at first were successful in inserting gene artificially, without fertilization.
Chapter 11. Biotechnology
In the history of biology, it was an unimaginable event. It instituted a new branch of biology called biotechnology or genetic engineering. We will discuss chromosome, gene, DNA, and RNA before discussing biotechnology. We have got an overall knowledge about the chromosome, gene, DNA and RNA in class Eight. We shall know it in detail in this chapter.
Biotechnology (commonly abbreviated as biotech) is the broad area of biology involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use” (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2). Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of molecular biology, bio-engineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc.
The wide concept of “biotech” or “biotechnology” encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes, going back to domestication of animals, cultivation of the plants, and “improvements” to these through breeding programs that employ artificial selection and hybridization. Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies.
Biotechnology is the research and development in the laboratory using bioinformatics for exploration, extraction, exploitation and production from any living organisms and any source of biomass by means of biochemical engineering where high value-added products could be planned (reproduced by biosynthesis, for example), forecasted, formulated, developed, manufactured, and marketed for the purpose of sustainable operations (for the return from bottomless initial investment on R & D) and gaining durable patents rights (for exclusives rights for sales, and prior to this to receive national and international approval from the results on animal experiment and human experiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects or safety concerns by using the products).
By contrast, bioengineering is generally thought of as a related field that more heavily emphasizes higher systems approaches (not necessarily the altering or using biological materials directly) for interfacing with and utilizing living things. Bioengineering is the application of the principles of engineering and natural sciences to tissues, cells, and molecules.
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