Chapter 3. Agriculture and Climate
Chapter 3. Agriculture and Climate. In this chapter, at first unfavorable environment, crops with their varieties tolerant to unfavorable weather and their importance have been discussed. Thereafter, the influence of climate change on the production of crops, fishes, and livestock and poultry have been discussed. In the last part of this chapter, the adaptation mechanisms of crops, fishes, and livestock and poultry to climate change have been discussed.
Chapter 3. Agriculture and Climate
We have learned about the unfavorable environment and stress whether in class VIII. In Bangladesh, there exists different unfavorable or stress weather in a different time in the year due to climate change. Very cool or comparatively lower cool in winter; very high temperature, drought, salinity, food or water shortage in summer, are unfavorable or stress weather for crop production in Bangladesh. If we have no proper management practices earlier to face these conditions, they can cause severe yield loss.
Climate change can disrupt food availability, reduce access to food, and affect food quality. For example, projected increases in temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, changes in extreme weather events, and reductions in water availability may all result in reduced agricultural productivity.
Climate change is already affecting agriculture, with effects unevenly distributed across the world. Future climate change will likely negatively affect crop production in low latitude countries, while effects in northern latitudes may be positive or negative. If the wealthy are not properly taxed, Climate change will probably increase the risk of food insecurity for some vulnerable groups, such as the poor. Animal agriculture is also responsible for CO
2 greenhouse gas production and a percentage of the world’s methane, and future land infertility, and the displacement of local species.
Agriculture contributes to climate change both by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and by the conversion of non-agricultural land such as forests into agricultural land. Agriculture, forestry and land-use change contributed around 20 to 25% of global annual emissions in 2010.
A range of policies can reduce the risk of negative climate change impacts on agriculture and greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector.
Despite technological advances, such as improved varieties, genetically modified organisms, and irrigation systems, the weather is still a key factor in agricultural productivity, as well as soil properties and natural communities. The effect of climate on agriculture is related to variabilities in local climates rather than in global climate patterns. The Earth’s average surface temperature has increased by 1.5 °F (0.83 °C) since 1880. Consequently, in making an assessment agronomists must consider each local area.
On the other hand, agricultural trade has grown in recent years, and now provides significant amounts of food, on a national level to major importing countries, as well as comfortable income to exporting ones. The international aspect of trade and security in terms of food implies the need to also consider the effects of climate change on a global scale.
A 2008 study published in Science suggested that, due to climate change, “southern Africa could lose more than 30% of its main crop, maize, by 2030. In South Asia losses of many regional staples, such as rice, millet and maize could top 10%”.
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