## Verification of ohm’s law using ammeter and voltmeter

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance, one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship:           where I is the current through the conductor in units…

## Determination of the refractive index of a glass prism

Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in speed at the boundary between two media of different density. The Latin word "fract" in refraction means to break. Refraction is the "breaking or bending" of waves as it travels to a different density media. The absolute index of refraction of…

## Determine MH by Vibration Magnetometer

A vibrating sample magnetometer or VSM is a scientific instrument that measures magnetic properties, invented in 1955 by Simon Foner at Lincoln Laboratory MIT. The paper about his work was published shortly afterward in 1959 A sample is placed inside a uniform magnetic field to magnetize the sample. The sample is then physically vibrated sinusoidally,…

## Determination of internal resistance of a cell

A practical electrical power source which is a linear electric circuit may, according to Thévenin's theorem, be represented as an ideal voltage source in series with an impedance. This resistance is termed the internal resistance of the source. When the power source delivers current, the measured (voltage output) is lower than the no-load voltage; the…

## Determination of focal length of a concave Mirror

Concave mirror: A concave mirror diagram showing the focus, focal length, centre of curvature, principal axis, etc. A concave mirror, or converging mirror, has a reflecting surface that bulges inward (away from the incident light). Concave mirrors reflect light inward to one focal are used to focus light. Unlike convex mirrors, concave mirrors show different…